Talking about the setting of refuge room in high-rise residential building
Keywords: high-rise residential; refuge; escape; refuge; shelter; refuge; refractory windows and doors
Due to the high combustibles and potential fire sources, family homes have more electrical equipment, inadequate fire protection facilities, and low resilience. They are prone to fires and casualties, especially high-rise residences. Rescue and escape after fire. More difficult. If you install a temporary shelter in a high-rise apartment with fire and smoke prevention function, if you can't escape from the door after a fire, you can go to the shelter in your home to temporarily avoid the rescue, so you will win for the escape. precious time.
1、The necessity of set up shelters
1.1 More households and less exports
There are not enough safe evacuation routes for residential buildings, and there is usually only one evacuation staircase. The multi-story unit type residential floor is low. After the fire, the existing fire-fighting equipment can reach the corresponding floor to implement fire fighting and rescue. The higher building exceeds the fire-fighting equipment rescue floor height and can only rely on self-rescue escape. The Code for Fire Protection of High-rise Buildings requires each of the 18th and 18th floors to have a staircase leading to the roof, and the stairs between the units are connected through the roof. More than eighteen floors, each unit has an evacuation staircase leading to the roof, and each of the eighteenth floors is connected by a balcony or a gallery. That is to say, most high-rise residential buildings often have only one escape route. If there is a fire in the house, it will also be due to the family steel security door.
This is the case when the heat expands rapidly and causes the door to be opened, causing the family to be trapped inside the home. Many times people have to choose to ask for help from the balcony or window. If the outside of the house catches fire, the smoke enters the only evacuation channel, which will cause some residents to dare to forcibly evacuate and be trapped at home. Some families have difficulties in evacuating and evacuating because of the elderly and children. As a result, they can only wait for rescue at home. Judging from the occurrence of family fire casualties, there are fewer evacuation routes and less safety exits are an important cause of casualties.
1.2 Residential anti-theft facilities affect rescue
After a family fire, if family members escape from the window, they often choose to escape from the balcony and the outside window. However, in the first language anti-theft considerations, many homes have installed security windows, anti-theft nets, even in the lower floors of the residents, it is more difficult to escape from the outer windows and balconies, and firefighters are more difficult to rescue after the scene. It is necessary for the security window (net) to lock the door to use the key to unlock the lock. It may not be unlocked due to tension during the fire. If it needs to be demolished, it will take longer. Some residential fires are caused by the anti-theft facilities that hinder the implementation of the rescue and cause the trapped people to die. It is more difficult for high-rise residential buildings to escape from balconies and exterior windows.
1.3 Automatic fire extinguishing facilities are heavily invested and difficult to maintain
The knowledge of the automatic fire alarm system set up by the high-rise buildings according to the specifications is conducive to the early detection of the early fire, and does not have the fire-fighting function. Although the automatic sprinkler system has a good fire-extinguishing effect, the use of residential buildings is still not widespread, and maintenance is not in place, and many have become furnishings. The use of residential buildings is less optimistic, most property management levels are low, and the system cannot be in good operating condition. Moreover, the automatic fire-fighting facilities are heavily invested and the operating costs are high. Many high-rise building automatic fire-fighting facilities fail to meet the normative requirements, so that the houses that should be protected have lost protection and security is not guaranteed.
2 Choice of family shelter
There are few safe evacuation routes for residential buildings, which makes it difficult to escape after a fire. If the family home can set up a temporary shelter, you can temporarily avoid the fire after waiting for the rescue, and you will gain valuable time for the escape. The shelters in the home are required to be extensive, with a high level of fire resistance and less combustibles. Family homes that meet these conditions are best served in the bathroom. There are one household in each bathroom, and there are more than two households. The fire resistance level can generally reach two or more. The room space is small, and the appropriate renovation can meet the requirements of fire prevention, fire prevention and smoke prevention, and the transformation cost is low. In the event of an emergency, ordinary people will think of refuge in the bathroom. For example, in the "11.15" special fire in the apartment building of Jiaozhou Road, Jing'an District, Shanghai, a resident of the second floor escaped to the bathroom to escape the unfortunate death, mainly because the bathroom has no fire and smoke prevention function. And it leads to tragedy.
The transformation of the bathroom into a refuge has two advantages. One is that people are most familiar, and the family members use the most frequently. Even in the dark smoke, they can find it. Second, the bathroom is small because of the small space. It is also suitable for temporary evasion when the earthquake occurs. The two refuge functions are unified and convenient for family members to master and practice. The fire prevention of the bathroom mainly considers the way the fire spreads from the doors and windows. The smoke prevention considers the way the smoke spreads from the doors and windows, the pipe wells and the pipeline gaps. There are less combustibles in the bathroom, and other households on the upper and lower floors of the bathroom are all toilets, and there are not many combustibles.
3 Family refuge design requirements
3.1 Fireproof door and window level selection
There are two situations in a family fire, one is a fire in the house and the other is a fire outside the home. According to the way of fire spread, the key points should be to consider the fire and smoke prevention of doors, windows and pipes. The toilets are available in various forms, generally divided into three types, one with an outer window, the other with no external windows, and the other with an external window but open to the balcony. The door of the bathroom should be designed as a fire door. It is advisable to choose a Class B fire door. If there is a window, use a fire window. According to the family fires that have occurred in the past, fires in the houses, most of the fire brigade's arrival time is within 30 minutes, and the fire-resistance limit of Class B fire doors and windows reaches 0.6 hours, which is more economical. Pipes that run up and down should be sealed at each floor with non-combustible or fire-proof plugging materials that are not less than the fire resistance of the floor.
3.2 Smoke prevention
There are upper and lower water pipes in the pipes in the bathroom, and water seals in the upper and lower water pipes can meet the requirements of smoke prevention. The external gaps of the pipes can be filled with materials or materials to achieve the purpose of fire prevention and smoke prevention. The bathroom with external window adopts natural smoke exhaust. If there is no window through the outdoor, there is generally a ventilation shaft. The fire control room can be used to control the smoke exhaust system on the roof of the positive pressure air supply fire. When the fire is opened, the smoke exhaust unit of the fire unit is opened. Smoke exhaust. If the family has more than two bathrooms, it is advisable to use the external window to be converted into a refuge. This is because the bathroom without windows may affect each other when ventilation is exhausted, and the bathroom with windows is also convenient for toxic fumes. Excretion is also conducive to calling for help and escape through the outer window.
3.3 Alarm consideration
The toilet can be placed with escape equipment, such as flashlights, whistle, landline, gas mask, etc., when the rescue personnel arrive, the police will use the alarm. If the automatic alarm system is set in the building, an alarm button can be set in each refuge room. When the fire is pressed, the fire control room attendant can be notified to grasp the location of the trapped person, which is convenient for rescue.
As a refuge for family use, the cost of renovation should not be too high, otherwise there will be no promotion value for the family. Take a 6.8m2 (4m×1.7m) bathroom renovation as an example. The size of the door is 2m×0.8m, and the size of the outer window is 1.63m×0.83m. If the shelter is to meet the fire safety requirements, it has basic fire prevention. The smoke function is designed to use Class B fire doors and windows. The fireproof sealing material used for the gap between the upper and lower water pipes is 10kg. The budget for the renovation budget is as follows:
From the data analysis in the table, the transformation rate is about 200 yuan higher than the ordinary bathroom. That is to say, the investment of 2,000 yuan can build a refuge room that meets the fire safety requirements. The average family can bear the cost, and it can be applied to both the single-family renovation and the entire building. Of course, it is best for the residential building to be a refuge for each household at the time of initial construction, to meet the design requirements of the refuge, so as to reduce the cost in general, and solve the problem of some windowless toilets affecting each other in preventing smoke and smoke. .
4 Use of refuge
（1）In the event of a family fire, the evacuation of the stairs from the home should be considered first. Only when the evacuation of the house is blocked is it necessary to escape to the refuge.
（2）In order to prevent fireworks from entering the refuge during a fire, the door and window of the refuge should be kept closed.
（3）Household appliances such as washing machines, electric water heaters, and exhaust fans placed in the refuge should be safe to use.
（4）Avoid flammable fittings in refuge rooms, ceilings and curtains using as much as possible and flame retardant materials.
（5）The refuge should be inspected regularly to assess the fire effectiveness of doors, windows and pipe gaps, and problems should be rectified in a timely manner.
5 Selection of refuge fireproof windows
The "Code for Fire Protection of Building Design" and "Code for Fire Protection Design of High-rise Civil Buildings" stipulate that fire prevention is made of steel and is divided into Grade A (fire resistance limit 1.20h) and Grade B (fire resistance limit 0.90h). For residential high-rise buildings, Class B fire windows can be used, which is practical and economical.
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